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If you are interested in other publications where NIM has been documented you can check out the list below.

The first 12 investigations are reported in PubMed. 7 investigations are related to CDI, 5 to IBS, in both, around 200 cases. One report is related to systemic sclerosis, a new study -including 70 cases – will be started medio 2020.  Additionally, ACHIM has been given to some autism spectrum disorder cases. Over the years, more than 3000 samples of ACHIM have been delivered, and around 2000 have received one or two samples of ACHIM (including immunosupprested patients and age from 2 to more than 80 years; no serious side effects have been reported. (some few days of abdominal gas and rumbling may occur in some few patients).

NIM Documentation


Restoration of the intestinal balance after recurrent Clostridium difficile infection by treatment with anaerobic cultured human intestinal microbiota (ACHIM). (56 patients, study terminated, preliminary manuscript) Azimi F, Benno P, Hellstrom P, Kovalski J, Lambert H, Midtvedt T, Norin E,

Safety and efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation by Anaerobic Cultivated Human Intestinal Microbiome (ACHIM) in patients with systemic sclerosis: study protocol for the randomised controlled phase II ReSScue trial. Hoffmann-Vold AM, Fretheim HH, Sarna VK et al. BMJ Open. 2021 Jun 24;11(6):e048541. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-048541. PMID: 34168032; PMCID: PMC8231046.

Fecal microbiota transplantation and ACHIM suspension for manipulating the gut microbiota in patients with IBS. Hausken et al. Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen Norway; ACHIM/IBS, 58 patient, 2 more still in “pipeline”.

2015 – 2020


Fecal microbiota transplantation in systemic sclerosis: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial. Fretheim H, Chung BK, Didriksen H et al. PLoS One. 2020 May 21;15(5):e0232739. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0232739. eCollection 2020.PLoS One. 2020. PMID: 32437393

Therapeutic potential of an anaerobic cultured human intestinal microbiota, ACHIM, for treatment of IBS. Benno P, Norin E, Midtvedt T et al. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2019 Jun-Aug;40-41:101607. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Primary Clostridium difficile Infection. Juul FE, Garborg K, Bretthauer M et al. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jun 28;378(26):2535-2536. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1803103. Epub Free article. Clinical Trial.

Bacteriophage synergize with the gut microbiota community to combat Salmonella. Hu, Y, Hugerth W, Midtvedt t, Norin E, Engstrand L et al. mSystems 2018, oct 2.

From IBS to DBS: The Dysbiotic Bowel Syndrome. Benno P, Dahlgren AL, Befrits R et al. J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep. 2016 May 9;4(2):2324709616648458. doi: 10.1177/2324709616648458. eCollection 2016 Apr-Jun.


[Underlying dysbiosis may be the cause of some forms of IBS. Patients were free of symptoms after the administration of microbiota]. Benno P, Befrits R, Berstad A, Dahlgren AL, Norin E, Midtvedt T.Benno P, et al. Lakartidningen. 2015 Jun 2;112:DF7I.Lakartidningen. 2015. PMID: 26035536 Swedish.

Is irritable bowel syndrome a dysbiotic bowel syndrome? Benno P, Befrits R, Norin E et al. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2015 May 29;26:27637. doi: 10.3402/mehd.v26.27637. eCollection 2015.

2010 – 2015


Response to Surawicz et al. Midtvedt T, Norin E, Benno P, Dahlgren AL.Midtvedt T, et al. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Dec;108(12):1931-2. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2013.280.Am J Gastroenterol. 2013. PMID: 24300869 No abstract available

Fecal transplant against relapsing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in 32 patients. Jorup-Rönström C, Håkanson A, Sandell S et al. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2012 

May;47(5):548-52. doi: 10.3109/00365521.2012.672587. 


Before 2010

Antibiotic or bacterial therapy in post-giardiasis irritable bowel syndromeMorken MH, Valeur J, Norin E, Midtvedt T, Nysæter G, Berstad A. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2009 Nov 1;44(11):1296-303​.

Feceskultur framgångsrik vid Clostridium difficile diarré. Jorup-Rönnström C, Håkanson A, Persson A-K et al. Läkartidningen3603-05.2006; 46(103).

Feces culture successful therapy in Clostridium difficile diarrhea.Jorup-Rönström C, Haakanson A, Persson AK, Midtvedt T, Norin A. (Swedish) Laekartidn 2005;103:3603-3605.

The effect of faecal enema on five microflora-associated characteristics in patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Gustafsson A, Berstad A, Lund-Tønnesen S et al Scand J Gastroenterol. 1999 Jun;34(6):580-6. doi: 10.1080/003655299750026038. 

Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea treated with homologous feces. Lund-Tønnesen S, Berstad A, Schreiner A et al. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen  1998; 10;118, 1027-30.

Faecal short-chain fatty acids in patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, before and after faecal enema treatment. Gustafsson A, Lund-Tønnesen S, Berstad A et al Scand J Gastroenterol . 1998 Jul;33(7):721-7. doi: 10.1080/00365529850171666. Clinical Trial  

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